A global biodiversity hotspot

Indonesia is a large archipelago nation, comprising over 14,700 islands.

Located between the Indian and Pacific Oceans, the country straddles the equator and has a hot, humid tropical climate. It also has more volcanoes than any other country in the world, many of which are active.

Indonesia is unquestionably one of the most biodiverse countries in the world and is a priority for global conservation.

Despite having the fourth largest population in the world, Indonesia is the most heavily forested place on Earth after the Amazon, and is home to roughly 11% of the world’s flowering plants, 13% of its mammals – including 46 primate species, 6% of its amphibians, 7% of its reptiles,16% of its birds and 14% of its fish (including freshwater and saltwater species).

Yet this biodiversity faces myriad threats including deforestation, unsustainable agriculture and plantations (such as oil palm and paper), forest fires triggered by human activities, water and air pollution, and poaching.

Indonesia facts
Asia-Pacific Country in Asia-Pacific

Size (land & water):

1,904,569 km²

Population (2017 est.):


GDP per capita (2016 est.):



Indonesia is an island nation in Southeast Asia. The archipelago is made up of more than 14,000 islands.


of Indonesia is forested – a decline of 23% since 1990.


is Indonesia’s largest island; it is almost twice the size of the UK.

Our work to protect Indonesia’s biodiversity

Fauna & Flora International (FFI) began working with Indonesia’s Ministry of Forestry in 1996 and we have since built up an extensive network of partners ranging from forest-edge communities and civil society organisations to government and private business.

People are at the centre of our conservation initiatives. We are at the forefront of efforts to help communities map their customary forests and gain official recognition of their right to manage these areas.

Over the years we have brought about real improvements for biodiversity through a number of flagship programmes, including our work with partners in Kerinci Seblat National Park to combat the illegal trafficking of tigers and tiger parts.

This work began more than 15 years ago and has resulted in tiger numbers stabilising (even in the face of severe poaching pressure) thanks to an innovative collaboration with park authorities and local communities to strengthen tiger protection through forest patrols, undercover investigations and law enforcement. The team also responds to human-wildlife conflict and other wildlife emergencies, and works to secure key tiger habitat in and around the park.

This is just one snapshot from a wide programme of activities in Indonesia, which also includes marine conservation in northern Sumatra, piloting REDD+ approaches to sustainable forest management, conservation of karst landscapes in southern Sulawesi, collaborative management and livelihood improvement together with indigenous people to protect biodiversity in Raja Ampat and much more besides.

Camera traps reveal Sumatran wildlife