1. FFI Australia
  2. FFI US
  3. Conservation Circle
Credit: Ruth Whitten

In the wake of Wallace – part two – birds of paradise

Posted on: 17.02.12 (Last edited) 3 December 2012

In the continuation of his blog on Alfred Russel Wallace, Fauna & Flora International’s Tony Whitten spends another day in paradise, retracing the steps of one of his conservation heroes.

When following in the wake of Alfred Russel Wallace, one has to remember that his focus was on collecting those animals that he could sell in order to both finance his travels, and provide a nest-egg for when he eventually returned to England. Thus, beetles, butterflies and birds were on the top of his list because they are wonderfully varied and beautiful, keep their colours when dead, and were popular collectibles of the time. Among the birds, the birds of paradise were top of his list and he made great efforts to collect them. Likewise, one can’t be in the wake of Wallace without trying to ‘collect’ them too.

Wallace was probably the first European to see birds of paradise in their natural habitats and certainly the first to describe their behaviour. He was also the first to bring two live birds back to the London Zoo, feeding them on fruit and the cockroaches he found on the ships and in the places the ship called at on the way. Perhaps unwittingly he contributed to the massive interest in their plumes in the Victorian millinery trade, but 40 years later he was supportive of the moves to outlaw the Victorian fashion of using the plumes in millinery. Indeed, in 1908, he wrote to Lord Avebury supporting the bill he was putting before Parliament: “To stop the import is the only way – short of the still more drastic method of heavily fining everyone who wears feathers in public, with imprisonment for a second offense. But we are not ripe for that yet.”

Watching for bird of paradise. Credit: Ruth Whitten

The species he made the most effort to collect was the Red bird of paradise and one place to see this relatively easily is just outside the village of Sawinggrai, on the south coast of Waigeo Island. We set off along a well-worn and somewhat slippery path at about 5am and soon reached the forest, using torches and mobile phones to light our way. After about 15 minutes the path steepened and we climbed up to a cleverly built, covered hide. Well, partially covered. A gap had been left in the roof through which we could just discern the top of a large, leafless tree against the still-dark sky. We sat quietly on the benches and the forest awoke.

The squeaks, squeals, tweets, pipes, croaks and booms of a myriad frogs, toads, cicadas and birds grew louder until we heard the repetitive, rasping squawks from just above us; our guide, Yesaya, told us that this was our quarry. The sky was by now quite light but the tree appeared empty.

red bird of paradise. Credit: Ruth Whitten

But suddenly there it was. It was larger than I had remembered from the few times I have seen it in zoos, and a predominantly soft ochre colour. My eye was caught by the two, long, wiry tail feathers with a small banner at their tip which bounced with every move the bird made. The head was mostly metallic green but this was offset by a bright yellow collar and a black mask behind its pale green bill.

It hopped and flew between the bare branches, flapping its wings slowly and deliberately to show off its mass of soft ‘underarm’ feathers, advertising its beauty to females which we could not see but were presumably in the surrounding trees making their assessment of his potential as a mate. The risen sun shone sideways against the birds and their perches and it was all rather beautiful to behold. Other males appeared but after the glory of the first they were rather a disappointment. One had only a single long tail feather and even that was bent and lacked the banner, and the other had none.

Onboard the Ombak Putih, Tony Whitten (left) enjoys the sights. Credit: Ruth Whitten

Sawinggrai receives about 700 visitors each year and is getting well known. But we also went to Yenbeser, a significant village for Wallace aficionados because it was the village from which he collected 24 Red birds of paradise back in 1860 and his ‘compact’ house where he based himself is illustrated in The Malay Archipelago. I met there with the Village Head, Albert Makusi, and also Karel Dimara who owns a small guest house on the coast against the forest from which he can take visitors to see the birds.

We discussed the possibility of  constructing a replica of the Wallace house (the dimensions and style of which are described well in the book) so that they could attract more visitors, have some stay over to see the birds in the forests which Wallace himself explored, and thus increase their benefits from the area’s growing ecotourism activities. We are now following up on that.

Read part one: the legacy of an original conservation champion.

Written by
Tony Whitten

If I were fabulously rich I'd probably try to do something similar to what I am doing professionally which is the fulfillment of my goal since I was very young. My first research was on ducks' sense of smell and my second paper was on the mating display of the Blue Duck. I moved from an interest in waterfowl to primates for my PhD, studying the endangered Kloss gibbon (and the people) on remote Siberut Island, west of Sumatra. That unwittingly set the course for the rest of my life in terms of commitment to Asia and also resulted in my first 'popular' book; indeed, for nearly 20+ years I had one or more books on the go. With gibbons behind me, I began work as Advisor in the Centre of Environmental Studies at the University of North Sumatra. Seeing the capacity problems facing environmental management in Indonesia, I initiated a series of major ecology books on different areas of Indonesia. Over the following 12 years - most of those in Indonesia - I wrote three of the volumes (on Sumatra, Sulawesi, and Java and Bali) while employed by Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia. During the ten years living in Indonesia I became very involved with freshwater fish and also land snails and ended up writing books on those too. Meanwhile I consulted for most of the major development agencies on land settlement, indigenous people, forest issues, and biodiversity. I became staff of the World Bank in 1995 through being a consultant for its independent evaluations arm working in Malaysia and Indonesia on land settlement and transmigration. While there I was engaged in three types of work: support to others' projects on habitat policy issues, regional initiatives, and my own conservation projects in Mongolia, China, Indonesia, Vietnam, and Laos. The first of these I found very stimulating and satisfying; seeking to find practical and sustainable solutions while allowing the projects to deliver their benefits. My regional initiatives sought to fill important gaps and to get the Bank’s imprimatur on important topics (freshwater biodiversity, karst biodiversity, biodiversity and impact assessment, faiths and environment) that were not commonly supported.

Other posts by Dr Tony Whitten

Written by

Tony Whitten
Other posts by Dr Tony Whitten
Make a donation

Support Fauna & Flora International


Fauna & Flora International (FFI) is a company limited by guarantee, incorporated in England and Wales, Registered Company Number 2677068. Registered Charity Number 101110
Fauna & Flora International Australia (Ltd) is a company limited by guarantee, and recognised as a Charitable Institution (ABN 75 132 715 783, ACN 132715783)
Fauna & Flora International Inc. is a Not for Profit Organisation in the State of Massachusetts. It is tax exempt (EIN #04-2730954) and has 501(c) (3) status
Fauna & Flora International Singapore is a public company limited by guarantee, Registration Number 201133836K. Registered charity under the Singapore Charities Act